Patients who continued to smoke after CABG had a greater risk of death and underwent repeat revascularization procedures more frequently than patients who stopped smoking. van Domburg RT, Meeter K, van Berkel DF, Veldkamp RF, van Herwerden LA, Bogers AJ: Smoking cessation reduces mortality after coronary artery bypass surgery: A 20-year follow-up study. J Am Col Cardiol 2000; 36:878–83
Smokers had significantly greater increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure after administration of desflurane, when compared to nonsmokers. Fitz-Henry J, Curran J, Griffiths D. Smokers and haemodynamic responses to desflurane. Anaesthesia 1999; 54: 800–803.
Heart rate of smokers and the neuroendocrine responses of smokers was significantly higher than nonsmokers after tracheal intubation. Paventi S, Santevecchi A, Ranieri R. Control of haemodynamic response to tracheal intubation in cigarette smokers compared with non-smokers. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2001 May-Jun;5(3):119-22.
Nicotine patches, when used to promote smoking cessation, significantly reduce the extent of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Mahmarian JJ, Moye LA, Nasser GA, Nagueh SF, Bloom MF, Benowitz NL, Verani MS, Byrd WG, Pratt CM: Nicotine patch therapy in smoking cessation reduces the extent of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 30:125–30
Cardiovascular benefit from smoking cessation begins within 12-24 hours of abstinence, likely due to carbon monoxide and nicotine elimination. Pearce AC, Jones RM. Smoking and anesthesia: preoperative abstinence and perioperative morbidity. Anesthesiology. 1984 Nov;61(5):576-84.