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The odds ratios for postoperative pulmonary complications developing in current smokers, recent smokers, and ex-smokers in comparison with never-smokers were 2.09, 2.44, and 1.03, respectivelyNakagawa M, Tanaka H, Tsukuma H, Kishi Y: Relationship between the duration of the preoperative smoke-free period and the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications after pulmonary surgery. Chest 2001; 120:705–10

 

In children undergoing general anaesthesia for inguinal hernia repair, environmental tobacco smoke exposure was associated with an increased frequency of respiratory symptoms during emergence from anaesthesia and during postoperative recovery. Drongowski RA, Lee D, Reynolds PI, Malviya S, Harmon CM, Geiger J, Lelli JL, Coran AG. Increased respiratory symptoms following surgery in children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Paediatr Anaesth. 2003 May;13(4):304-10.

 

Smoking was associated with an increased risk of respiratory complications (e.g. desaturation, cough, apnea) in ambulatory surgery patients. Myles PS, Iacono GA, Hunt JO, Fletcher H, Morris J, McIlroy D, Fritschi L. Risk of respiratory complications and wound infection in patients undergoing ambulatory surgery: smokers versus nonsmokers. Anesthesiology. 2002 Oct;97(4):842-7.

 

Administration of desflurane to patients who are smokers caused significant bronchoconstriction compared with nonsmokers receiving desfluraneGoff MJ, Arain SR, Ficke DJ, Uhrich TD, Ebert TJ: Absence of bronchodi- lation during desflurane anesthesia: A comparison to sevoflurane and thiopental. Anesthesiology 2000; 93:404–8

 

Specific respiratory events (e.g. re-intubation, laryngospasm, aspiration, hypoventilation, etc.) had a total incidence of 5.5% in smokers and 3.1% in nonsmokersSchwilk B, Bothner U, Schraag S, Georgieff M: Perioperative respiratory events in smokers and nonsmokers undergoing general anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41:348–55

 

Smoking is an independent predictor of respiratory failure during high-risk surgerySvensson LG, Hess KR, Coselli JS, Safi HJ, Crawford ES: A prospective study of respiratory failure after high-risk surgery on the thoracoabdominal aorta. J Vasc Surg 1991; 14:271–82

 

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