⇦ Back


Compared with never smokers, health care costs during the first year after hospital discharge for an inpatient surgical procedure are higher in both former and current smokers. Warner DO, Borah BJ, Moriarty J, Schroeder DR, Shi Y, Shah ND. Smoking status and health care costs in the perioperative period: a population-based study. JAMA Surg. 2014 Mar;149(3):259-66.


Longer periods of smoking cessation decrease the incidence of postoperative complications. Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011 Feb;124(2):144-54


Smoking cessation was not independently associated with changes in pain symptoms in older adultsYu Shi, WM Hooten, DO Warner. Effects of smoking cessation on pain in older adults. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Oct; 13(10): 919–25.


Longer periods of smoking cessation appear to be more effective in reducing the risk of postoperative complications; there was no increased risk in postoperative complications from short term cessationTheadom A, Cropley M.Effects of preoperative smoking cessation on the incidence and risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications in adult smokers: a systematic review. Tob Control. 2006 Oct;15(5):352-8.


Treatment with a single dose of nicotine immediately before emergence from anesthesia was associated with significantly lower reported pain scores during the first day after surgery. The decreased pain was associated with a reduction in morphine utilization and the analgesic effect of nicotine was not associated with hypertension or tachycardiaFlood P, Daniel D: Intranasal nicotine for postoperative pain treatment. Anesthesiology 2004; 101:1417–21


Read more research ➙