Preoperative smoking cessation programs have been shown to precipitate long-term (>=12 months) cessation, further research needed to identify effective approaches to endorse both short-term and long-term cessation. Berlin, Nicholas L; Cutter, Christina; Battaglia, Catherine. University of Colorado School of Public Health. Will preoperative smoking cessation programs generate long-term cessation? A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Managed Care. 21(11):e623-31, 2015 Nov 01.
Focusing on enhancing negative smoker portrayals, rather than reducing positive portrayals, may be more effective for antismoking campaigns. Magnan, Renee E; Cameron, Linda D. Department of Psychology, Washington State University Vancouver. A cross-sectional investigation of positive and negative smoker stereotypes and evaluations of cigarette warnings. Health Psychol. 36(5):486-492, 2017 May.
Encouraging patients to fast from smoking before surgery and postoperative support are efficacious ways to reduce preoperative and immediate post-operative tobacco use. Ratner PA, Johnson JL, Richardson CG, Bottorff JL, Moffat B, Mackay M, Fofonoff D, Kingsbury K, Miller C, Budz B: Efficacy of a smoking-cessation intervention for elective-surgical patients. Res Nurs Health 2004; 27:148–61
Undergoing surgery is associated with an increased likelihood of smoking cessation in the older U.S. population. Cessation is more likely in association with major procedures compared with outpatient surgery. Shi Y, Warner DO. Surgery as a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Anesthesiology. 2010 Jan;112(1):102-7
E-cigarette users were more likely to report abstinence than either those who used NRT bought over-the-counter (OR = 2.23) or no aid (OR = 1.38). Brown J, Beard E, Kotz D, Michie S, West R. Real-world effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation: a cross-sectional population study. Addiction. 2014 Sep;109(9):1531-40.
The 52-week abstinence rate for patients using varenicline was 42.8% versus 31.0% in those using their choice of NRT. Kralikova E, Kmetova A, Stepankova L, Zvolska K, Davis R, West R. Fifty-two-week continuous abstinence rates of smokers being treated with varenicline versus nicotine replacement therapy. Addiction. 2013 Aug;108(8):1497-502.
There is evidence that preoperative smoking interventions including NRT increase short-term smoking cessation and may reduce postoperative morbidity. Thomsen T, Villebro N, Møller AM. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jul 7;(7):CD002294.