In smokers the wound infection rate was 12% compared with 2% in never-smokers. Wound infections were significantly fewer in abstinent smokers compared with continuous smokers after 4, 8, and 12 weeks after randomization. Sorensen LT, Karlsmark T, Gottrup F: Abstinence from smoking reduces incisional wound infection: A randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg 2003; 238:1–5
Smoking was an independent risk factor for surgical site infection (OR = 38.3). Jain RK, Shukla R, Singh P, Kumar R. Epidemiology and risk factors for surgical site infections in patients requiring orthopedic surgery. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 2015 Feb;25(2):251-4.
Surgical site infections following elective abdominoplasty were highly correlated with the number of cigarettes per day , the years of smoking , and estimated overall number of cigarettes. Araco A, Gravante G, Sorge R, Araco F, Delogu D, Cervelli V. Wound infections in aesthetic abdominoplasties: the role of smoking. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008 May;121(5):305e-310e.
Smokers have a greater complication risk for surgical wounds, which cause aesthetically more undesirable scars than observed in nonsmokers. Rogliani M, Labardi L, Silvi E, Maggiulli F, Grimaldi M, Cervelli V. Smokers: risks and complications in abdominal dermolipectomy. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2006 Jul-Aug;30(4):422-4.
Patients receiving supplemental inspired oxygen had a 40% reduction in the risk of wound infection. Belda FJ, et al. Supplemental perioperative oxygen and the risk of surgical wound infection: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005 Oct 26;294(16):2035-42.